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Cognitivism in Language Learning

Cognitivism in Language Learning: Definitions, Principles, Practices, and Applications

Introduction Cognitivism, a pivotal theory in psychology, has significantly influenced the field of language learning and teaching. Unlike behaviorism, which focuses on observable behaviors, cognitivism emphasizes the importance of mental processes. This article delves into the definitions, principles, and historical evolution of cognitivism, its application in language learning, and provides examples of cognitivism-based activities in language teaching.

Cognitivism: Definitions and Principles Cognitivism emerged as a reaction to behaviorism in the mid-20th century. It posits that learning is an internal process, involving memory, thinking, and problem-solving (Ormrod, 2016). Cognitive theorists argue that mental processes influence how information is processed and retained (Piaget, 1952). Key principles include:

  1. Schema Theory: Schemas are mental structures that help organize and interpret information. They play a crucial role in learning and memory (Bartlett, 1932).
  2. Information Processing: Learning is likened to how a computer processes information, involving encoding, storage, and retrieval (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968).
  3. Metacognition: Awareness and understanding of one’s own thought processes are crucial in learning (Flavell, 1979).

History and Evolution The roots of cognitivism trace back to Gestalt psychology in the early 20th century, focusing on perception and problem-solving (Köhler, 1929). Jean Piaget’s developmental stages and Lev Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory further shaped cognitivism. The cognitive revolution of the 1950s and 1960s marked a shift from behaviorist perspectives, emphasizing the role of mental processes in learning (Miller, 2003).

Application in Language Learning and Teaching Cognitivism has profoundly impacted language teaching methodologies. It advocates for an understanding of the learner’s internal processes and prior knowledge (Krashen, 1982). Key applications include:

  1. Constructivist Approach: Encouraging learners to construct their own understanding of language through active engagement (Bruner, 1966).
  2. Task-Based Learning: Involving learners in meaningful tasks, promoting the use of language as a tool for learning (Ellis, 2003).
  3. Focus on Learner’s Background Knowledge: Recognizing and building upon what learners already know (Ausubel, 1968).

Example Activities and Explanation

  1. Concept Mapping: Enables students to visualize relationships between words and concepts, facilitating deeper understanding (Novak & Gowin, 1984).
  2. Problem-Solving Tasks: Engages students in tasks that require them to use language creatively and thoughtfully.
  3. Reflective Journals: Encourages metacognition, allowing students to reflect on their learning processes and strategies.

Conclusion Cognitivism offers a robust framework for understanding and facilitating language learning. By focusing on internal cognitive processes, it provides insights into how learners acquire, process, and use language. Educators can apply these principles to create more effective and engaging language learning experiences.

References

  1. Atkinson, R.C., & Shiffrin, R.M. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In K.W. Spence (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 2, pp. 89-195). Academic Press.
  2. Ausubel, D.P. (1968). Educational psychology: A cognitive view. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
  3. Bartlett, F.C. (1932). Remembering: A study in experimental and social psychology. Cambridge University Press.
  4. Bruner, J.S. (1966). Toward a theory of instruction. Belkapp Press.
  5. Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford University Press.
  6. Flavell, J.H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive-developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34(10), 906.
  7. Köhler, W. (1929). Gestalt psychology. Liveright.
  8. Krashen, S.D. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Pergamon.
  9. Miller, G.A. (2003). The cognitive revolution: a historical perspective. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7(3), 141-144.
  10. Novak, J.D., & Gowin, D.B. (1984). Learning how to learn. Cambridge University Press.
  11. Ormrod, J.E. (2016). Human learning (7th ed.). Pearson.
  12. Piaget, J. (1952). The origins of intelligence in children. International Universities Press.
  13. Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Harvard University Press.