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Problem Based Learning (PBL)

Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is an engaging and effective approach for teaching English to young children. It involves presenting students with a problem that lacks a straightforward solution, encouraging them to work in groups to solve it, thereby facilitating language learning through problem-solving and collaboration. Here’s a sample activity procedure designed for young learners in an English language teaching (ELT) context using the PBL approach:

Activity Title: “The Mystery Guest”

Objective: To practice basic English greetings, questions (e.g., What’s your name? How are you? Where are you from?), and responses in a fun and interactive way.

Age Group: Young children (ages 6-10)

Materials Needed:

  • Character cards with pictures and brief descriptions of different characters (e.g., an astronaut, a superhero, a teacher, etc.)
  • A ‘mystery box’ or envelope to hold the character cards
  • Props or costumes related to the characters (optional)


  1. Introduction to the Problem (10 minutes)
    • Begin by telling the children that a mystery guest will be visiting their classroom, but no one knows who it is. The mystery guest has left clues about their identity, and the children need to figure out who it is by asking questions.
    • Introduce basic English questions and phrases that they will need to use, such as “What’s your name?”, “How are you?”, and “Where are you from?”
  2. Group Formation (5 minutes)
    • Divide the class into small groups of 3-4 students.
    • Explain that they will work together as a team to solve the mystery of the guest’s identity.
  3. Problem Investigation (15 minutes)
    • Give each group a character card from the mystery box. Each card should have a picture of the character and a brief description in simple English.
    • Groups use the information on the card to prepare questions that they will ask the mystery guest to determine their identity. Encourage them to think creatively and use the English phrases introduced earlier.
  4. Solution Development (20 minutes)
    • One at a time, invite a student from each group to come to the front and act as the mystery guest, using the props or costumes if available. They should assume the role of the character on their card.
    • Other groups take turns asking the mystery guest questions in English, trying to guess the character’s identity based on their responses.
    • The mystery guest can only answer using phrases and vocabulary that have been taught, encouraging practice and reinforcement of the language.
  5. Presentation and Reflection (10 minutes)
    • Once a group correctly guesses the mystery guest’s identity, they present their reasoning and the questions that led to their conclusion.
    • Discuss as a class what strategies helped them figure out the identity of the mystery guest and how they overcame challenges in understanding or communication.
  6. Wrap-up (5 minutes)
    • Conclude by highlighting the importance of asking questions and listening carefully in communication.
    • Praise the children for their teamwork and use of English in solving the problem.


  • Observe and note the children’s participation and use of English during the activity. Provide feedback and support as needed.


  • For further practice, children can create their own mystery character cards and exchange them with other groups, or they could write a short story about an adventure involving their character.

This PBL activity not only encourages the use of English in a communicative context but also promotes critical thinking, collaboration, and creativity among young learners.