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Future Perfect

The Future Perfect tense is used to describe actions that will have been completed by a certain point in the future. It helps to express the idea that something will occur before another action in the future or before a specific time. Let’s explore this through an example text:

By the end of this year, I will have completed my thesis. Not only will I have finished my research, but I will also have presented my findings at the international conference. My advisor will have reviewed my work, ensuring that every detail is perfect.

This example highlights several actions (completing the thesis, finishing research, presenting findings, reviewing work) that are anticipated to be finished before a certain future moment.


The Future Perfect tense is formed with the subject plus “will have” followed by the past participle of the verb. Here’s how it looks in positive, negative, and interrogative sentences:

Positive Negative Interrogative
I will have finished. I will not have finished. Will I have finished?
You will have completed. You will not have completed. Will you have completed?
He/She/It will have gone. He/She/It will not have gone. Will he/she/it have gone?
We will have learned. We will not have learned. Will we have learned?
They will have arrived. They will not have arrived. Will they have arrived?

Meaning and Use

The Future Perfect tense is primarily used in the following contexts:

  1. Completion Before a Future Moment: To indicate that an action will be completed before a specific future time. “By next week, I will have finished the project.”
  2. Completion Before Another Future Action: To suggest that one action will be completed before another action takes place in the future. “She will have left by the time you get home.”

Signal Words

Certain words or phrases often accompany the Future Perfect tense to signal its use, including:

  • By the time
  • By (a specific time)
  • Before

By the time

“By the time” sets a future moment when an action will have been completed relative to another event.

  • Example 1: “By the time we arrive at the party, the host will have already left.”
  • Example 2: “By the time the meeting starts, the team will have prepared all the necessary documents.”
  • Example 3: “By the time you hear back from them, I will have already made other plans.”

By (a specific time)

This phrase specifies a deadline by which the action will have been completed. It’s often used with a specific date, time, or event.

  • Example 1: “By 6 PM tomorrow, I will have finished all my assignments.”
  • Example 2: “By the end of the month, she will have moved to her new apartment.”
  • Example 3: “By the time the concert begins, we will have secured our seats.”


“Before” emphasizes that an action will be completed at any point up until another action or time, but not after.

  • Example 1: “I will have cleaned the house before my parents arrive.”
  • Example 2: “He will have completed the marathon before noon.”
  • Example 3: “We will have finalized the contract before the deadline.”

Common Mistakes

  1. Confusing with Other Future Tenses: Avoid mixing up the Future Perfect with the Future Simple or Future Continuous. The Future Perfect specifically indicates completion before a certain time.
  2. Incorrect Verb Form: Remember that the Future Perfect requires “will have” followed by the past participle of the main verb.
  3. Misusing Signal Words: Ensure that signal words are used appropriately to indicate the action will be completed by a certain future time or before another future action.

By mastering the Future Perfect tense and its uses, you can precisely express the completion of future actions relative to other events or moments in time. This tense adds depth to your narrative by allowing you to sequence events and highlight achievements or milestones that will have been reached by specific future dates.